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One pattern of the book is “be a Hands-on Modeller” (you have to have some contact to the ground level or you won’t give good advice, stay up to date, stay sharp, keep learning things you can talk about).

Every effective DDD person is a Hands-on Modeller.

A lot of things are not exactly different from the book but there is a little different emphasize.

What is (really) essential in the book?

  1. Creating creative collaboration of domain experts & software experts à ubiquitous language pattern
    (you’re not supposed to create that model for yourselves)
  2. Exploration and experimentation
    the first useful model you encounter is unlikely to be the best one. When there are glitches and you start working around if you’re already frozen. à “blast it wide open”, explore with the domain experts
  3. Emerging models shaping and reshaping ubiquitous language
    (say things crisply an un-ubiquitous, no complicated explanations), explore with the domain expert
  4. explicit context boundaries (sadly it is in chapter 14, would be chapter 2 or 3 today)
    a statement in a language makes no sense when it's floating around, you could only guess the context it is in.
    Draw a context map! Should be done in every project!
  5. focus on the core domain (sadly it is in chapter 15)
    find the differentiator involved in your software: how is your software supposed to change the situation for the business you’re in (we do not mean efficiently, something significant)

These are the things to focus on.

Building Blocks (chapter 5)

Our modelling paradigm is too general, we have objects and relations – this is just too broad. We need something that structures this a little more, puts things into categories, helps communicate the nature of your choices.

Services - Entities - Value objects
Repositories – Factories

  • They are important but overemphasized
  • But let’s add another one anyway, as an important ingredient: Domain Events (interesting for domain expert):
    The level of event (important for the domain expert) you want to record something important happened in your domain. There is a consistent form:
    • Tend to happen at a certain time
    • Tend to have associated a person
    • typically immutable (you record it happened and that’s it)
  • Domain Events give you some architectural options, especially for distributed systems
    (record events from different locations)
  • consistent view on this entity (“runs” in a game reported from different locations) across a distributed system à event oriented view

More options:

  • Decoupling subsystems with event streams (Design Decoupling)
    • Have a core transactional system, send out a stream of domain events
      (you can change the definitions and only need to maintain the stream of events)
  • Such distributed systems are inconsistent but well characterized
  • Have multiple models in a project that are perfect for their purpose say reporting and trading (of course you don’t have to)

Another aspect of domain events are distributed systems:
Enabling high-performance systems (Greg Young)

Aggregates (super important)

  • Do people often ask how to access what’s inside? But that’s not the most important question.
  • Aggregates help to enforce the real rules
  • You have something you think of as a conceptual whole which is also made up of smaller parts and you have rules that apply to the whole thing.
  • Classic example: purchase order, having a limit, an amount, line items that add up, …
    but with thousands of line items object orientation gets a little stuck
  • Beware of mimic objects (that carry data around but not doing anything useful)
    • "Where is the action taking place?”
  • Sometimes it might be useful to give aggregates more privileges so they could execute a count query themselves.
  • Aggregate: we see it as a conceptual whole and we want it to be consistent
    • Consistency boundaries
      • Transactions
      • Distribution
        (you need to define what has to be consistent when crossing the boundaries)
      • Concurrency
    • Properties
    • Invariant rules

Strategic design

  1. Context mapping
  2. Distillation of the core domain
  3. Large scale structure

Large scale structures do not come up that often.

Setting the stage

  • Don’t spread modelling too thin (“you need to know why modelling is done”)
    Modelling is an intensive activity, so the more people understand it the more value you gain
  • Focus on the core domain, find out what it is. Find the need for extreme clarity.
  • Clean, bounded context
  • iterative process
  • access to a domain expert

Context mapping

Context: the setting in which a word or statement appears that determines its meaning.

Bounded context: a description of the conditions under which a particular model applies.

Partners: to teams that are mutually dependent. Forced into a cooperative relationship.

“Big Ball of Mud”:  (the most successful architecture ever applied)

How to get out? Draw a context map around the big ball of mud. Build a small correct module inside the ball until eventually the ball of mud captures you. But you had that time to do it right. So think about an anti-corruption layer.

If you transfer a model into a different context, use a translation map:
model in context <--> translation map <--> model in context

Explain the meaning of something. Because meaning demands context.


  • Draw a context map
  • Define core domain with business leadership
  • Design a platform that supports the core domain

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